Marine, seabed, and land seismic equipment for broadband acquisition: a review
Journal name: Geophysical Prospecting
Issue: Vol 66, No 5, June 2018 pp. 922 - 933
Info: Article, PDF ( 14.68Mb )
The broadband capabilities of marine, seabed, and land seismic equipment are reviewed with respect to both the source and the receiver sides. In marine acquisition, the main issue at both ends of the spectrum relates to ghosts occurring at the sea surface. Broadband deghosting requires towing at variable depth to introduce notch diversity or using new equipment like multi-component and/or low-noise streamers. As a result, a doubling of the bandwidth from about three to six octaves (2.5– 200 Hz) has been achieved. Such improvement is not yet observed for seabed surveys in spite of deghosting being a standard process on the receiver side. One issue may be related to the coupling of the particle motion sensor, particularly at high frequencies. For land acquisition, progress came from the vibrators. New shakers and control electronics using broadband sweeps made it possible to add two more octaves to the low-frequency signal (from 8 to 2 Hz). Whereas conventional 10 Hz geophones are still able to record such low frequencies, 5 Hz high gain geophones or digital accelerometers enhance them to keep the signal above the noise floor. On the high end of the bandwidth, progress is not limited by equipment specifications. Here, the issue is related to a low signal-to-noise ratio due to the strong absorption that occurs during signal propagation. To succeed in enlarging the bandwidth, these improved equipment and sweeps must be complemented by a denser spatial sampling of the wavefield by point–source and point–receiver acquisition.