Three-dimensional curvature analysis of seismic waveforms and its interpretational implications
H. Di, M. Alfarraj and G. AlRegib
Journal name: Geophysical Prospecting
Issue: Vol 67, No 2, February 2019 pp. 265 - 281
Info: Article, PDF ( 20.18Mb )
The idea of curvature analysis has been widely used in subsurface structure interpretation from three-dimensional seismic data (e.g., fault/fracture detection and geomorphology delineation) by measuring the lateral changes in the geometry of seismic events. However, such geometric curvature utilizes only the kinematic information (two-way traveltime) of the available seismic signals. While analysing the dynamic information (waveform), the traditional approaches (e.g., complex trace analysis) are often trace-wise and thereby fail to take into account the seismic reflector continuity and deviate from the true direction of geologic deposition, especially for steeply dipping formations. This study proposes extending the three-dimensional curvature analysis to the waveforms in a seismic profile, here denoted as the waveform curvature, and investigates the associated implications for assisting seismic interpretation. Applications to the F3 seismic dataset over the Netherlands North Sea demonstrate the added values of the proposed waveform curvature analysis in four aspects. First, the capability of the curvature operator in differentiating convex and concave bending allows automatic decomposition of a seismic image by the reflector types (peaks, troughs and zero crossings), which can greatly facilitate computer-aided horizon interpretation and modelling from three-dimensional seismic data. Second, the signed minimum curvature offers a new analytical approach for estimating the fundamental and important reflector dip attribute by searching the orientation associated with least waveform variation. Third, the signed maximum curvature makes it possible to analyse the seismic signals along the normal direction of the reflection events. Finally, the curvature analysis promotes the frequency bands of the seismic signals and thereby enhances the apparent resolution on identifying and interpreting subtle seismic features.