Tectonic and oceanographic process interactions archived in Late Cretaceous to Present deep‐marine stratigraphy on the Exmouth Plateau, offshore NW Australia
H.D. Nugraha, C.A.L. Jackson, H.D. Johnson, D.M. Hodgson and M.T. Reeve
Journal name: Basin Research
Issue: Vol 31, No 3, June 2019 pp. 405 - 430
Info: Article, PDF ( 3.8Mb )
Deep‐marine deposits provide a valuable archive of process interactions between sediment gravity flows, pelagic sedimentation and thermohaline bottom‐currents. Stratigraphic successions can also record plate‐scale tectonic processes (e.g. conti-nental breakup and shortening) that impact long‐term ocean circulation patterns, in-cluding changes in climate and biodiversity. One such setting is the Exmouth Plateau, offshore NW Australia, which has been a relatively stable, fine‐grained carbonate‐dominated continental margin from the Late Cretaceous to Present. We combine extensive 2D (~40,000 km) and 3D (3,627 km2) seismic reflection data with litho-logic and biostratigraphic information from wells to reconstruct the tectonic and oceanographic evolution of this margin. We identified three large‐scale seismic units (SUs): (a) SU‐1 (Late Cretaceous)—500 m‐thick, and characterised by NE‐SW‐trending, slope‐normal elongate depocentres (c. 200 km long and 70 km wide), with erosional surfaces at their bases and tops, which are interpreted as the result of con-tour‐parallel bottom‐currents, coeval with the onset of opening of the Southern Ocean; (b) SU‐2 (Palaeocene—Late Miocene)—800 m‐thick and characterised by: (a) very large (amplitude, c. 40 m and wavelength, c. 3 km), SW‐migrating, NW‐SE‐trending sediment waves, (b) large (4 km‐wide, 100 m‐deep), NE‐trending scours that flank the sediment waves and (c) NW‐trending, 4 km‐wide and 80 m‐deep tur-bidite channel, infilled by NE‐dipping reflectors, which together may reflect an in-tensification of NE‐flowing bottom currents during a relative sea‐level fall following the establishment of circumpolar‐ocean current around Antarctica; and (c) SU‐3 (Late Miocene—Present)—1,000 m‐thick and is dominated by large (up to 100 km3) mass‐transport complexes (MTCs) derived from the continental margin (to the east) and the Exmouth Plateau Arch (to the west), and accumulated mainly in the adjacent Kangaroo Syncline. This change in depositional style may be linked to tectonically‐induced seabed tilting and folding caused by collision and subduction along the northern margin of the Australian plate. Hence, the stratigraphic record of the Exmouth Plateau provides a rich archive of plate‐scale regional geological events occurring along the distant southern (2,000 km away) and northern (1,500 km away) margins of the Australian plate.