Slowness-domain kinematical characteristics for horizontally layered orthorhombic media. Part II: Pre-critical slowness match
Z. Koren and I. Ravve
Journal name: Geophysical Prospecting
Issue: Vol 67, No 5, June 2019 pp. 1134 - 1162
Info: Article, PDF ( 10.96Mb )
Part II of this paper is a direct continuation of Part I, where we consider the same types of orthorhombic layered media and the same types of pure-mode and converted waves. Like in Part I, the approximations for the slowness-domain kinematical char-acteristics are obtained by combining power series coefficients in the vicinity of both the normal-incidence ray and an additional wide-angle ray. In Part I, the wide-angle ray was set to be the critical ray (‘critical slowness match’), whereas in Part II we con-sider a finite long offset associated with a given pre-critical ray (‘pre-critical slowness match’). Unlike the critical slowness match, the approximations in the pre-critical slowness match are valid only within the bounded slowness range; however, the ac-curacy within the defined range is higher. Moreover, for the pre-critical slowness match, there is no need to distinguish between the high-velocity layer and the other, low-velocity layers. The form of the approximations in both critical and pre-critical slowness matches is the same, where only the wide-angle power series coefficients are different. Comparing the approximated kinematical characteristics with those ob-tained by exact numerical ray tracing, we demonstrate high accuracy. Furthermore, we show that for all wave types, the accuracy of the pre-critical slowness match is essentially higher than that of the critical slowness match, even for matching slowness values close to the critical slowness. Both approaches can be valuable for implemen-tation, depending on the target offset range and the nature of the subsurface model. The pre-critical slowness match is more accurate for simulating reflection data with conventional offsets. The critical slowness match can be attractive for models with a dominant high-velocity layer, for simulating, for example, refraction events with very long offsets.